A P Euro: Chapter 23
Henry Bessemer: (1830-1898): was an English engineer who built a refined blast furnace in 1856 known as the Bessemer converter, which made steel production cheaper and more efficient than ever before. In turn machinery and tools became better and cheaper than ever before.
Gottleib Daimler (1834-1900): was a German engineer perfected the modern internal combustion engine. By 1899, he had mounted it on a carriage body and the modern automobile was born.
Henry Ford (1863-1947): was the entrepreneur and industrialist who in 1913 greatly improved manufacturing techniques when he introduced the assembly line to automobile production. His conveyor system carried components past workers at the proper height and speed and each worker performed a specialized task at a fixed point on the assembly line. This subdivision of labor and the coordination of operations resulted in enormous productivity gains enabling Ford Motor Company to produce half of the world’s automobiles in the early twentieth century.
The Panic of 1873: triggered a severe international economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879, and even longer in some countries. The depression was known as the Great Depression until the 1930s, but is now known as the Long Depression. During this period both prices and wages – as well a profits fell, so that real wages held firm and even rose in some countries. Also, it was at this time that the term unemployment was coined
The Great London Exhibition of 1851: was a great exhibition held in London to celebrate progress in industry and commerce achieved through the new industrial order. The Exhibition marked the point in history when the middle class became the judge (arbiter) of consumer taste. After the mid nineteenth century the middle classes were no longer revolutionary in character and became protective of social equality and property rights.
The Middle Class: refers to that group of a society which occupies a position between the upper class and the lower classes. It is important to understand that the middle class is always diverse from the very prosperous (such as large business owners and bankers who were very wealthy) to professional people (such as professionals, entrepreneurs, teachers, shopkeepers and librarians).
Petite Bourgeoisie: were the lower middle class that included secretaries, retail clerks and lower level bureaucrats in business and government. They often had working-class origins but had middle class aspirations and felt above the lower classes. They often pursued educational opportunities to gain advancement for themselves or for their children.
Georges Haussmann (1809-1891): was appointed prefect of the Seine by Napoleon III from 1853 to 1870. Haussmann over saw a vast urban reconstruction of Paris in which entire districts were destroyed to make way for broad boulevards and streets that became the symbol of modern Paris.
The Eiffel Tower: is a puddle iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris built in 1889. It is still the tallest building in Paris and one of the most-visited paid monuments in the world; and named after its designer, Gustave Eiffel, and built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair.
The Sacré-Cœur Basilica or Basilica of the Sacred Heart: was built on the of the Montmartre (Hill of Mars) as an act of national penance for the sins that had supposedly led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.
The Miasma Theory: held that diseases such as Cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air".
Louis Rene Villerme (1782-1863): was a French doctor who later in life became an economist who wrote about social issues. In 1840, published Tableau de l’état physique et moral des ouvries [Catalog of the Physical and Moral State of Workers] about urban working-class conditions in France.
Sir Edwin Chadwick (1800–1890) was an English social reformer, noted for his work to reform the Poor Laws and improve sanitary conditions and public health. In 1842, he wrote a Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Lobouring Population which shocked the English public.
Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902): was a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician, known for his advancement of public health. Referred to as "the father of modern pathology," he is considered one of the founders of social medicine.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): was a French scientist who proved the germ theory when he linked the presence of bacteria to certain diseases. He also discovered a process called pasteurization, in which raw milk is heated just enough to kill harmful bacteria, but do not harm quality of the milk.
Joseph Lister (1827-1912): was the British doctor who discovered how antiseptics prevent infections and demanded that doctors wash their hands before surgery and use sterilized instruments.
Robert Koch (1843-1910): was a German doctor who identified the bacterium that caused Tuberculosis.
Jules Simon (1814-1896): was a French statesman and philosopher who was an advocate of housing reform. He believed that good housing led to good family life and, ultimately, to strong patriotic feeling.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797): was a self educated woman, published and influential essay in 1792, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, in which she argued that women possessed all rights that men possessed. Moreover she argued that education for all women would actually make them better mothers and wives and prepare them for professional occupations and even participation in political life
Harriet Taylor Mill (1807–1858) was a philosopher and women's rights advocate. Her second husband was John Stuart Mill. She wrote very little but had an enormous influence on Mill as developed in Mill’s The Subjection of Women, in which he argues for the equality of women but which was published eleven years after her death.
Millicent Garrett Fawcett (1847–1929): was an English suffragist (one who campaigned for women to have the vote) and an early feminist. She led the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. She believed that Parliament would grant women the right to vote (suffrage) only if suffragists were respectable and responsible in their political campaigning.
Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928): was the leader of the more radical branch of British feminists and suffragists. She was widely criticized for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognized as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain.
The Women’s’ Social and Political Union: was founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia. The Union became known for its militant activity. Pankhurst once said: The condition of our sex is so deplorable that it is our duty to break the law in order to call attention to the reasons why we do. For years they were known derisively as Suffragettes as they used violent tactics such as arson, breaking windows and destroying postal boxes. They marched en masse on Parliament and many of the members were imprisoned where they were force fed because they went on hunger strikes.
Hubertine Auclert (1848-1914): was a leading French feminist and a campaigner for women's suffrage. in in 1880, Auclert launched a tax revolt, arguing that without representation women should not be subjected to taxation; she continued her activism for full equality for women until her death.
The National Council of French Women: was organized in 1901 among upper-middle class women even though it did not support suffrage for women for many years. Like almost all French feminists, members rejected violence and believed that women could achieve the right to vote through careful and peaceful agitation.
The Union of German Women’s Organizations: was founded in 1894 and by 1902 was calling for the right to vote for women along improving women’s social conditions such as increased access to education.
Pogroms: were organized riots against Jewish neighborhoods in Russia and Poland.
Anti-Semitism: is suspicion of, hatred toward, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage.
Trade Unionism: is a reference to the work of either a trade union (British English), labour union (Canadian English) or labor union (American English) which is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. Trade Unionism came of age when governments extended legal protections to trade unions during the second half of the nineteenth century.
Otto von Bismarck: was the German chancellor who brought about the unification of Germany and also proved to be a most surprising Evolutionary Socialist, (well, sort of!) when he introduced medical insurance, unemployment compensation and retirement pensions for German workers. Bismarck was not a proponent of Liberalism but, like Robert Owen, he understood that secure workers make more productive workers and his reforms greatly increased German industrial output.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) were German theorists and Revolutionary Socialists who believed that social problems of the nineteenth century were the inevitable results of a capitalist economy.
The First International: In 1864 a group of British and French trade unionists founded the International Working Men’s Association, known as the First International. Its aim was to unite different left-wing socialists, Marxists, anarchists and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
James Keir Hardie (1856–1915): was a Scottish socialist politician, and was the first Independent Labour Member of Parliament elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Hardie is regarded as one of the primary founders of the Independent Labour Party as well as the Labour Party of which it later was a part.
The British Labour Party: first won seats in the elections of 1906. Their goals were not socialist but they became more militant as the government became more active in mediating labor disputes.
Fabian Socialism: was founded in 1894 and became Great Britain’s most influential socialist group. The group took its name from Quintus Fabius Maximus, the Roman general whose tactics again Hannibal involved avoiding direct conflict that might lead to defeat. Its leading members were Sidney Webb, his wife Beatrice Webb, H. G. Wells, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw. They sought to educate the country about the rational wisdom of socialism and were much interested in types of collective ownership on the municipal level such as gas and water works [this led them to be called the Gas and Water Socialists].
The National Insurance Act of 1911: was a law passed by the British Parliament which provided unemployment benefits and health care for most workers, paid for by taxation. The Act is often regarded as one of the foundations of modern social welfare in the United Kingdom and forms part of the wider social welfare reforms of the Liberal Government of 1906-1914. The increasing influence of the Labour Party among the population had put the Liberals under pressure to enact social legislation.
The Parliament Act of 1911: came about when the House of Lords refused to pass a budget to pay for the National Insurance Act of 1911. The result was the Parliament Act of 1911 which allowed the House of Commons to override any legislative veto of the House of Lords. The Act was pushed through the House of Lords when George V who threatened to create sufficient Liberal peers to overcome the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. The Act effectively removed the right of the Lords to veto money bills.
Jean Jaurès (1859-1914): was a French Socialist leader. Initially an Opportunist Republican, he evolved into one of the first social democrats, becoming the leader, in 1902, of the French Socialist Party, which opposed Jules Guesde's Revolutionary Socialist Party of France. Jaurès believed that socialists should cooperate with the middle class to ensure government enactment of needed legislation. [An antimilitarist, Jaurès was assassinated at the outbreak of World War I, and remains one of the main historical figures of the French Left.]
Jules Guesde (1845-1922): was a French socialist journalist and politician who opposed Jaurès and argued that socialists could not, with integrity, support a bourgeois cabinet they were theoretically dedicated to overthrowing.
The Second International: was founded in 1889 and dedicated to unify the various national socialist parties and trade unions. By 1904, the Amsterdam Congress of the Second International debated the issue of Opportunism such as that of Jaurès or socialists serving as cabinet ministers. The congress condemned Opportunism in France and ordered French socialists to form a single party. Jaurès accepted the decision and thereafter French socialists began to work together.
Georges Sorel (1847-1922): was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. In his book, Reflections on Violence, he taught that urging workers to strike can be used to both unite the workers and gain power for them. His ideas inspired both Marxists and Fascists.
Syndicalism: is an economic system that is meant to replace capitalism but without fully developed state socialism. It combines socialists visions with corporate groups in order manage the economy and maintains that all participants in an organized trade internally share equal ownership of its production. In a socialist state, the state directs organized businesses but does not care how unions operate internally; Communism rejects such government direction and favors ownership by the people who are engaged in business, that is the proletariat; Syndicalism merges capitalist business ownership and labor unions share a complicated relationship of co-operation and opposition with the state.
German Social Democratic Party: began in the 1860s, and became the biggest party of the world around 1900. Its roots lay in the labor agitation of Ferdinand Lasalle (1825-1864) who wanted workers to participate in German politics. Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900) and August Bebel (1840-1913), who were Marxists opposing reformist politics, son joined the party. Thus, from its founding, the SDP was divided between those who advocated reform and those who advocated revolution.
The Erfurt Program: of 1891 was formulated under the political guidance of August Bebel and Karl Kautsky (1854-1938). The Erfurt Progam declared that Capitalism was doomed and socialist ownership of production was the only solution.
Sergei Witte: served as Russia’s finance minister from 1892 to 1903. Witte oversaw construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad and worked to push Russian industrialization by reforming commercial law, protecting infant industries, supporting steamship companies, and promoting nautical and engineering schools. He invited foreign investors and encouraged the establishment of savings banks. As a result of his efforts, Russia had enormous coal and iron industries and a government demand for weapons.
Kulaks: were free Russian peasants who became wealthy after their liberation.
Gregory Plekhanov (1857-1918): was the leading late 19th century Marxist whose chief disciple was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov who later took the name Lenin, was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years (1917–1924), as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a socialist economic system.
London Congress of the Russian Socialist Democratic Party of 1903: was the occasion when Lenin forced a split in the party ranks. he and his followers lost many votes on questions put before the congress but near its close they mustered a slim majority. Thereafter their party was known as the Bolsheviks (meaning majority) and the other more moderate and democratic faction became known as the Mensheviks (meaning minority). It is important to note that Lenin believed that a mass party functioning in a democratic fashion would seek only to reform workers’ wages, hour and living conditions whereas he wanted a revolution that would transform Russia.
The Tactics of Social Democracy in the Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution: was Lenin’s theory where his urged the socialist revolution to unite the proletariat and the peasantry. His theory was based on the assumption that the Tsarist government could not suppress both the workers and peasants if they both rebelled.
The Russo-Japanese War was a result of Nicholas II’s attempt to deflect attention from domestic unrest, by foolishly trying to expand Russia’s holdings in Korea and Manchuria. Tiny Japan launched a surprise attack and destroyed the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in 1904 and then went on to defeat another Russian fleet the following year (at the Battle of Tsushima) while Japanese army troops threw the Russians out of Korea and inflicted a humiliating defeat on Russia who had to sue for peace in 1905 (brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt). The embarrassment of the Russo-Japanese War caused widespread disturbances in Russia.
Bloody Sunday occurred in January, 1905 when soldiers fired on a crowd of peaceful demonstrators and killed one hundred and thirty men women and children.
The Revolution of 1905 was a direct result of the Bloody Sunday massacre which caused an unprecedented wave of anger to sweep Russia that culminated in labor unrest, peasant revolts, student demonstrations and mutinies in the army and navy. In short Russia came to a standstill. Moreover, both peasants and factory workers began to organize in the cells or groups called Soviets. The Revolution forced the Tsar to grant reforms and the establishment of the first Duma.
The Duma was the Parliament of Russia, created by Romanov dynasty during the 1905 revolution. Nicholas II made sure that the Duma did not have power to create or bring down governments.
The Fundamental Laws was Nicholas II’s 1906 betrayal of the 1905 October Manifesto, in which was stated that the Tsar's ministers could not be appointed by and were not responsible to the Duma. Moreover, the Tsar had the power to dismiss the Duma and announce new elections whenever he wishes.
Peter Stolypin was prime minister over a second Duma and later procured a third Duma which was dominated by the nobility and landowners. Stolypin continued government repression. Secret police arrested thousands, as pogroms and government repression continued. He was assassinated in 1911.
Soviet: was a name used for several Russian political organizations. Examples include the Czar's Council of Ministers, which was called the “Soviet of Ministers.” As the revolution of 1905 intensified, strikes broke out in Saint Petersburg and worker groups called Soviets controlled the city until the Tsar made concessions.
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