April Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis May Margaret of Parma appointed Governor-General

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3 April Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis

May Margaret of Parma appointed Governor-General

12 May Bull Super univeras: Pope Paul IV authorised re-organisation of bishoprics

July-August States General at Ghent demanded withdrawal of Spanish troops and more participation by nobility in government

31 July Promulgation of bull Super universas for new bishoprics

9 August Orange appointed stadhouder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht; Egmont made governor of Flanders and Artois

25 August Philip II departed from Netherlands

10 January Spanish troops withdrew from Netherlands

26 February Anthoine de Perronet, bp. of Arras, designated archbp. of Mechelen, made Cardinal (Granvelle)

July Orange refused to participate in installation of new magistracy of Antwerp

23 July Orange and Egmont complained to Philip about not being consulted on important matters

25 August Marriage of Orange to Anna of Saxony


May/June Great nobility opposed Philip II's plan to intervene in French Wars of Religion. Formation of anti-Granvelle League.

June/Dec Failure of Montigny's mission to Spain.

11 March William of Orange, Egmont & Hoorne write to King to complain about Granvelle; on receiving unsatisfactory reply in June, they withdrew from Council of State.

26 April First 'synod' of Reformed churches held at Antwerp

August Margaret of Parma sent Armenteros to persuade King to drop Granvelle

28 November Embargo on trade with England

December Banquet of League of Nobility held at Schetz' house; foolscap livery


13 March King recalled Granvelle from the Netherlands

18 March Egmont, Hoorne & Orange returned to Council of State

30 July King ordered publication of Tridentine decrees in the Netherlands (implementation delayed until July 1565)

November Grain prices peaked

December Trade embargo relaxed

17 December Grain prices fell at Antwerp

31 December William of Orange spoke in Council of State in favour of freedom of conscience


20 February Egmont arrived in Madrid

30 April Egmont returned to Brussels

24 June Council of State agreed to publication of Tridentine decrees in the Netherlands

July/Aug Protestant nobles met at Spa to devise campaign against persecution

17/20 Oct King's Letters sent from Segovia

5 Nov Letters from Segovia Woods arrived at Brussels

14 November Council of State informed about Segovian letters

December Formation of Compromise of Nobility

18 December Margaret of Parma demanded implementation of anti-heresy edicts


5 April Lesser nobility presented Petition to Margaret of Parma

Late May Calvinists resumed open-air services in Flanders.

3 July Edict against return of Protestant exiles

mid July Members of Compromise met with Calvinist leaders

30 July Presentation of Second Petition for religious freedom

31 July King, on news of Calvinist services, agreed to rescind inquisition, but soon after he went back on promise, arguing he had acted under duress (Kossmann & Mellink, doc. 6)

10 August Start of iconoclasm in Westkwartier (Steenvoorde)

13 August King authorised Margaret of Parma to levy troops and sent 300,000 ducats

15 August Feast of Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary: provoked widespread imagebreaking

19 August Orange left Antwerp for Brussels

20 August Iconoclasm at Antwerp

23 August Iconoclasm at Amsterdam, Breda, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tournai

23/25 Aug Negotiations leading to Accoord; limited religious freedom, dissolution of Compromise; high nobility to provinces to implement terms of Accoord

2 September William of Orange brokered religious peace at Antwerp

3 September News of imagebreaking reached King

1 October Synod of Reformed church held at Ghent: 3,000,000 guilder Request

3 October Meeting at Dendermonde: Orange, Egmont, Hoorne, Hoogstraten & Louis of Nassau failed to agree common plan of action

29 November Alba reluctantly accepted command of troops to be sent to Netherlands

27 December Calvinist rebels defeated in Flanders

13 March Rebel forces massacred at Oosterweel outside Antwerp

23 March Valenciennes surrendered; Calvinist leaders hanged

11 April Orange left Antwerp en route for Dillenberg

27 April Bishops met to discuss implementation of Tridentine reforms

18 June Alba began march along 'Spanish Road' to Netherlands

22 August Alba entered Brussels as Captain-General

29 August Margaret of Parma asked King leave to withdraw

5 September Patent issued for Council of Troubles

9 September Egmont and Hoorne arrested

30 December Margaret left Brussels; Alba succeeded as Governor-General


12 February Brederode died

May Sea Beggars began to operate

23 May Louis of Nassau invaded Groningen; defeated Aremberg at Heiligerlee

5 June Egmont and Hoorne executed at Brussels

21 July Alba defeated Louis of Nassau at Jemmingen

5/6 October Orange crossed Maas

17 November Orange withdrew across French border

19 December English authorities impound treasure ships bound for Low Countries

20 February Orange first granted letters of marque to Sea Beggars

20/21 Mar Alba announced fiscal reforms to States General

5 & 9 July Alba published his Criminal Ordinances

16 July Alba published General Pardon

1 November 'All Saints Flood': widespread flooding in the Netherlands


31 July Alba moved to implement Tenth Penny forthwith

4 October First 'national' synod of Reformed churches held at Emden

1 March Sea Beggars expelled from England

20 March Alba warned that Lumey has planned raid on Den Brielle

1 April Sea Beggars seized Den Brielle

7 April Flushing refused to accept Spanish garrison

8 April So-called massacre of Rotterdam

9 April Riots at Gouda

19 April Treaty of 'friendship' between France and England

22 April Flushing reinforced from Den Brielle

2 May Sea Beggars opened negotiations with Dordrecht

21 May Enkhuizen declared for Orange

24 May Louis of Nassau captured Mons

11 June Medina-Celi arrived in the Netherlands

15 June Alba decided to withdraw all Spanish troops from Holland

25 June Dordrecht agreed to admit Beggars

26 June Leiden agreed to admit Beggars

4 July Haarlem agreed to admit Beggars

9 July Execution of Catholic clergy at Den Brielle (Gorcum martyrs)

19-23 July First 'free assembly' of States of Holland

26 July Delft agreed to admit Beggars

26 July Philip agreed to suspend Tenth Penny

17 August Orange invaded Brabant

21 August Amsterdam reinforced; Beggars abandoned siege

24 August Massacre of St. Bartholomews in Paris

30 August Orange entered Mechelen

19 Sept. Louis of Nassau surrendered Mons to Alba

Feb/Apr Prohibition of Catholic mass in Holland

13 July Haarlem capitulated to Alba after siege of 6 months

8 October Spanish abandoned siege of Alkmaar

11 October Beggars defeated fleet in Zuiderzee; Bossu captured

19 October Requesens appointed as governor

6 November Medina Celi returned to Spain

29 November Requesens sworn in as governor

18 December Alba returned to Spain

27 January Spanish fleet defeated at Reimerswaal

9/18 Feb. Middelburg surrendered to Orange

14 April Battle of Mokerheide

7 June Abolition of Council of Troubles and Tenth Penny

10 July Alba's statue removed from Antwerp

3 October Orange relieved Leiden

8 February University of Leiden inaugurated

March/July Peace negotiations continued at Breda

4 June Holland and Zeeland unite under Orange

11 July Orange recognised as 'souverain ende overhooft' by States of Holland for duration of war

25 August Holland issued leeuwendaalder without reference to royal authority

1 September Spain suspended interest payments on public debt

9 October States of Holland allegedly resolved 'for ever to sejoyne themselves from the Crowne of Spayne'

13 October States of Holland decided to forsake King and seek foreign help

November Rebels offered title of Countess of Holland & Zeeland to Elizabeth


5 March Death of Requesens

24 March Council of State entrusted with government

April States of Holland reportedly felt no obligation to Philip since he 'has violated his oath'

25 April Union of Delft: Orange recognised as 'chief and highest authority' in Holland & Zeeland for duration of war

6 May Title of Count of Holland offered to Alençon, later Duke of Anjou, younger brother of Henry III of France.

29 June Mondragon captured Zierikzee

25 July Spanish mutineers sacked Aalst in Flanders

26 July Council of State declared mutineers to be rebels; States of Brabant decided to recruit troops to opposed mutineers

1 September Don John received his commission

4 September Council of State arrested in Brussels

6 September States of Brabant summoned States General on own authority

25 Sept States General decided to negotiate with rebel provinces

19 October Negotiations with Holland & Zeeland began at Ghent

28 October Negotiations at Ghent concluded

3 November Don John arrived in Luxemburg

4-7 Nov. Spanish Fury at Antwerp

5 November States General agreed to Pacification of Ghent

8 November Pacification of Ghent signed

11 November Spanish garrison at Ghent surrendered

17 December Leuven theologians stated that Pacification was not contrary to Catholic faith

9 January Union of Brussels

17 February States General published Perpetual Edict with Don John without consultation of Holland & Zeeland; these withdrew in protest

6 April King reluctantly approved Pacification

28 April Withdrawal of Spanish troops

12 May Don John entered Brussels

6 June Protestant punished at Ghent for breach of Pacification

15 June Protestant executed at Mechelen in contravention of Pacification

24 July Don John seized castle at Namur

19 August Delegates of Holland and Zeeland rejoined States General

6 September States General invited Orange to Brussels

11 September Philip ordered return of Spanish troops

23 Sept Orange entered Brussels in triumph

3/4 October Archduke Matthias left Vienna secretly for the Netherlands

9 October Utrecht agreed terms with Orange (Satisfactie)

18 October Privileges restored to Ghent

22 October Orange appointed ruwaard of Brabant

28 October Aarschot and bishops of Bruges & Ieper arrested at Ghent

1 Nov. Committee of XVIII established at Ghent

7 December States declared Don John to be enemy of country; no longer recognised as governor-general

8 December States General offered government to Archduke Matthias

10 Dec. Second Union of Brussels

29 December Orange entered Ghent


18 January Matthias made state entry into Brussels

20 January Matthias accepted government with Orange as his lieutenant

31 January States army defeated at Gembloers (Gembloux)

February Protestant preaching began secretly at Ghent

8 February Satisfaction of Amsterdam

16 February Ghent sezied control of Oudenaarde

16 March Protestant services began at Antwerp

20 March Ghent seized control of Bruges

24 April States General issued edict forbidding Calvinist services

18-22 May Mendicant houses attacked at Ghent

22 May Johan van Nassau appointed stadhouder of Gelderland

26 May Coup d'état [Alteratie] at Amsterdam

29 June Catholic services at Haarlem disrupted

1 June Calvinists at Ghent preached in public

3-18 June National Synod of Reformed churches at Dordrecht

7 June Calvinists at Ghent rejected Orange's demand to stop services

9 June Orange proposed religievrede to States General

18 June Jesuits expelled from Antwerp

12 July Anjou arrived at Mons; Antwerp, Friesland & Ommelanden accepted religievrede

15 July Pope Gregory XIII warned bishops & clergy to remain loyal to King

29/30 July First Meeting of classis of East Flanders

13 August Anjou recognised by States General as 'Defender of the Liberties of the Low Countries'

late August Calvinist services held in all Ghent parish churches

29 August Religievrede accepted in Antwerp

28 Sept Dathenus began to preach at Ghent

1 October Malcontents seized Menen; Don John died

6 October Opening of Calvinist seminary, the Theologisch Athenaeum in Ghent

10 October John Casimir arrived in Ghent; Farnese opened negotiations with Walloon provinces

29 Dec. Orange in Ghent to enforce religievrede

6 January Union of Arras (Hainaut, Artois & Douai)

19 January Orange left Ghent

23 January Union of Utrecht (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Ommelanden)

4 February Ghent signed Union of Utrecht

10 March Amersfoort (Utrecht) compelled to recognise Union of Utrecht

10/11 March Second iconoclastic outburst at Ghent

3 May Orange reluctantly signed Union of Utrecht (or 3 June)

7 May Negotiotions between States General and King began at Cologne

17 May Peace/ Treaty of Arras (Hainaut, Artois & French Flanders)

29 June Farnese captured Maastricht

29 July Antwerp signed Union of Utrecht

28 July Hembyze staged coup état at Ghent

20 August Orangists triumphed at elections in Ghent

29 August Hembyze and Dathenus left Ghent

13 Sept Definitive Treaty of Arras signed; reconciliation of Walloon provinces

13 November Granvelle advised King to outlaw Orange

22 November King ratified Treaty of Arras


3 March 'Treason' of Rennenberg in Groningen

15 March Orange outlawed by Philip II

31 March States of Holland offered Orange 'de hoge overheid'

May Spanish troops left Luxemburg for Lombardy

7 July Orange accepted 'hooge overigheid en regeringe' (la souverainété et gouvernement) of Holland and Zeeland (to safeguard provinces from authority of Anjou)

29 Sept Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours: Anjou accepted as prince

13 December Orange offered Apology to States General


23 January States General took oath of loyalty to Anjou

February Apology published

June Government forces re-captured Breda

26 July Act of Dismissal

August French troops of Anjou entered Netherlands

29 November Farnese captured Tournai (last Walloon town in States' hands)

February Spanish troops returned to the Netherlands

18 February Anjou received as Duke of Brabant in Antwerp

7 March Decided to record resolutions of States General in Dutch

18 March Attempt on life of Orange by Jean Jauregui at Antwerp

6 July Farnese captured Oudenaarde

20-31 Aug Anjou received at Ghent as Count of Flanders

15-17 Jan French Fury

27 May Farnese captured Diest

18 June States of Flanders repudiated Anjou

16 July Farnese captured Dunkirk

22 July Orange left Antwerp for Holland

2 August Farnese captured Nieuwpoort

August States General and College of Union of Utrecht merged

24 October Hembyze and Dathenus returned to Ghent

February Hembyze negotiated secretly with Farnese

23 March Hembyze arrested

7 April Ieper surrendered to Farnese

20 May Bruges surrendered to Farnese

10 June Anjou died

23 June Hnery III offered 'la souveraineté et protection' of Netherlands

3 July Farnese encircled Antwerp

10 July Orange assassinated at Delft

4 August Hembyze executed for treason at Ghent

17 Sept Ghent surrendered to Farnese

28 March English Privy Council discussed intervention in Low Countries

12 August Agreement of 'provisional succour'

17 August Fall of Antwerp

20 August Treaty of Nonsuch

20 October Act of Ampliation: Elizabeth to send army of 6000

1 November Maurice installed as stadhouder of Holland

1 February Act of Authority: Leicester appointed as Governor General

8 March Oldenbarnevelt appointed landsadvokaat

15 April Prohibition of 'trade with enemy'

26 April Union of Protestant churches at Utrecht

7 June Grave surrendered to Farnese

28 June Venlo surrendered to Farnese

19 July Paulus Buys arrested

31 July Floris Thin excluded from Utrecht

4 August Neuss surrendered to Farnese

11 November Prouninck excluded from States General

25 November Leicester returned to England

29 January Stanley and Yorke delivered Deventer and Zutphen 'sconce' to enemy

5 February Dutch embassy met Elizabeth

18 February Execution of Mary of Scots

8 March Critical report of Leicester's government received in London

23 March Lord Buckhurst sent to United Provinces

20 June Leicester's Instructions issued

5 August Sluis surrendered to Farnese

11 October Coup d'état at Leiden thwarted.

17 November Leicester recalled

6 December Leicester left Netherlands

1 Compiled by Dr. Alastair Duke, University of Southampton

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