Notes – The Atlantic World (Chapter 20) 20-1 Spain Builds an American Empire

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Notes – The Atlantic World (Chapter 20)
20-1 Spain Builds an American Empire

  1. What country was Columbus sailing for? What was he searching for? Where did he end up?

Spain; an eastern route to Asia; the Caribbean

  1. What are colonies?

Lands controlled by another nation

  1. What is Balboa known for?

Finding the Pacific in the New World

  1. What is Ferdinand Magellan known for?

Circumnavigating the world

  1. What are conquistadores and what were they looking for?

Conquerors; looking for gold and silver in the New World

  1. Who was Hernan Cortes?

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico

  1. Why might Montezuma, the Aztec leader, have thought Cortes was a god?

He looked very different than anyone the Aztecs had ever seen: tall, light skin. He was on a horse, something else they had never seen. His weapons seemed like magic.

  1. How was Cortes able to defeat the Aztec?

Superior weapons, help from other native groups, and diseases which wiped out thousands

  1. Who was Francisco Pizarro?

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca in Peru

  1. What are peninsulares? What are mestizos?

Peninsulares – Spanish settlers in the New World

Mestizos – Descendants of peninsulares and native women (i.e. mixed blood)

  1. Who do you think held the most power?


  1. What is the encomienda system?

System in which native people farmed and mined for Spanish landlords

  1. How did the end of the encomienda system lead to the use of enslaved Africans?

Spanish landlords still needed cheap and plentiful labor, so turned to slaves once encomienda was abolished

20-3 The Atlantic Slave Trade

  1. What were the causes of the African slave trade?

  • End of encomienda system

  • Slavery had existed in Africa, so it wasn’t totally new to them

  • Disease had wiped out the native population in the Americas; Africans had some resistance to disease since they had been exposed to Europeans

  • Many Africans had experience as farmers, unlike native population

  • Difficult for Africans to escape, since they didn’t know the land

  1. What was the Atlantic Slave Trade and what was the result?

Buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas; resulted in the import of 9.5 million Africans to the Americas

Spain and Portugal led the way, later English dominated the slave trade

  1. Describe the Triangular Trade. Draw a diagram showing it. Label each leg.

  1. Triangular Trade – a transatlantic trading network

  1. Leg 1 – European transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa, traded goods for captured Africans. The #1 good that they traded was guns.

  2. Leg 2 – Africans were transported from Africa across the Atlantic to the Americas and sold. This was called the Middle Passage

  3. Leg 3 – Raw materials are shipped from the Americas back to Europe. Some of the things sent were sugar, coffee, rum, and tobacco.

  1. What was the Middle Passage?

The brutal crossing of the Atlantic of slave ships from Africa to the Americas; the middle leg of the Triangular Trade

  1. Describe the effect of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa. On the Americas?

    1. Impact on Africa (negative)

  1. Numerous cultures lost their fittest members

  2. Families torn apart

  3. Many African societies devastated by the introduction of guns

    1. Impact on the Americas (positive)

  1. Growth of the colonies

        1. Economic AND cultural

    1. Impact on the Americas (negative)

      1. Lasting effect in the Americas is racism

20-4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade

  1. What it the Old World? What is the New World?

Old – Europe, Africa and Asia

New – Americas

  1. What was the Columbian Exchange?

The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas

  1. What were some of the items brought from the Old World to the New?

Wheat, rice, sugar cane, bananas, grapes, horses, pigs, chicken, citrus fruit and DISEASES (small pox, measles, whooping cough, etc.)

  1. What were some of the items brought from the New World to the Old?

Potatoes, corn, tomatoes, turkeys, pumpkins, tobacco, sweet potatoes

  1. How did the introduction of European livestock change the lives of the Native Americans?

Horses allowed them to travel faster, hunt better, were valuable property for trading

  1. What was the importance of corn and potatoes and what was the result?

Inexpensive to grow and nutritious; resulted in growth of world’s population

  1. What was a result of the colonies on the economies of Europe?

Led to new wealth in Europe; growth of overseas trade; new business and trade practices

  1. What is capitalism?

It’s an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources, such as money, for profit

  1. What was a result of the growth of a merchant class?

Merchants became wealthy and invested their money in trade and overseas exploration

  1. What was a joint-stock company? What were the advantages to investors? How did they reflect the capitalist system?

  • A business venture in which investors buy shares of stock in a company

  • Combined wealth allows larger investments and minimizes risk for individuals

  • Individual investment and joint ownership

  1. What is mercantilism?

A theory that a country’s power depended mainly on its wealth, so the goal of every country became the attainment of as much wealth (gold) as possible

  1. What is a favorable balance of trade?

When a country sells (exports) more goods than it buys (imports); the goal of countries

  1. Why was self-sufficiency so important to a country practicing mercantilism?

Minimized the amount they had to buy (import), improving the balance of trade

  1. What was the role of the colonies in a mercantilist system?

  1. How did the economic revolution brought about by colonization in the Americas change European society?

Growth of towns; rise of wealthy merchant class; wealth of European nations increased; rise of national identities; expanded power of monarchs

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