United States History Assessments Ninth Grade

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United States History Assessments

Ninth Grade

6.1.1 Factors in the American Industrial Revolution – Analyze the factors that enabled the United States to become a major industrial power, including

  • gains from trade

  • organizational “revolution” (e.g., development of corporations and labor organizations)

  • advantages of physical geography

  • increase in labor through immigration and migration

  • economic polices of government and industrial leaders (including Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller)

  • technological advances

1. Which of the following technological advances did not help the United States become a major industrial power?

A. The transcontinental railroad

B. The airplane

C. The steam powered engine

D. The Bessemer Process

Answer: B
2. How did the increase of immigration affect the industrial revolution in America?
A. Immigrants from Eastern Europe provided factory bosses with cheap abundant labor.

B. Immigrants from Japan provided factory bosses with cheap abundant labor.

C. Immigrants from Eastern Europe moved into urban areas and took part in political legislation.

D. Immigrants helped create surplus goods for the war effort.

Answer: A
3. Prior to 1890, United States businesses made few foreign investments mainly because
A. state governments discouraged foreign investments.

B. foreign investments were prohibited by Congress.

C. foreign nations did not accept investments from United States businesses.

D. investment opportunities were better in the United States.

Answer: D

4. Speaker A: “When demand ran high, and markets were scarce, he showed little mercy, broke his contracts for delivery and raised prices.”

Speaker B: “The man of wealth must hold his fortune ‘in trust’ for the community and use it for philanthropic and charitable purposes.”

Speaker C: “It is cruel to slander the rich because they have been successful. They have gone into great enterprises that have enriched the nation and the nation has enriched them.”

Speaker D: “The fruits of the toil of millions are boldly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for the few, unprecedented in the history of mankind.”
Which two speakers would most likely label late 19th-century industrialists as robber barons?
A. A and B

B. A and D

C. B and C

D. C and D

Answer: B

6.1.2 Labor’s Response to Industrial Growth – Evaluate the different responses of labor to industrial change including

  • development of organized labor, including the Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, and the United Mine Workers

  • southern and western farmers’ reactions, including the growth of populism and the populist movement (e.g., Farmers Alliance, Grange, Platform of the Populist Party, Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” speech)

1. During the late 1800s, a major reason labor unions had difficulty achieving their goals was that

A. government supported business over labor.

B. industrialization created better working conditions.

C. there was a shortage of new workers.

D. businesses promoted labor officials to management positions.

Answer: A
2. In the United States, organized labor made its greatest membership gains when
A. the right to unionize and bargain collectively was guaranteed by legislation.

B. international competition began to threaten jobs in the United States.

C. the major business groups encouraged unionization.

D. the economy began to shift from manufacturing to service employment.

Answer: A
3. Unlike the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor included which of the following groups in its membership?
A. African Americans

B. Skilled workers only

C. Women and children

D. Many farmers and factory workers

Answer: B
4. Which conclusion can be drawn about the impact of the Populist and the Progressive parties on the United States?
A. Some third-party goals eventually become planks in the platforms of the major parties.

B. The United States has steadily moved from a two-party system to a multiparty system.

C. Religious ideals have most often motivated people to splinter away from major parties.

D. An increasing number of citizens have grown weary of party politics and fail to vote in elections.

Answer: A

6.1.3 Urbanization – Analyze the changing urban and rural landscape by examining

  • the location and expansion of major urban centers

  • the growth of cities linked by industry and trade

  • the development of cities divided by race, ethnicity, and class

  • resulting tensions among and within groups

  • different perspectives about immigrant experiences in the urban setting

1. At the turn of the century, why did most immigrants to the United States settle in cities?

A. Jobs were readily available.

B. Government relief programs required immigrants to settle in cities.

C. Labor union leaders encouraged unrestricted immigration.

D. Immigrants were not permitted to buy farmland.

Answer: A
2. How did the pattern of European immigration shift in 1890?
A. From Jewish to Catholic Europeans

B. From northern to southern, western, and eastern Europeans

C. From eastern to southern

D. From eastern to western

Answer: B

3. “America’s strength lies in its diversity. Many immigrant groups have joined the mainstream of American life, while maintaining their languages, religions, and traditions. This has made the United States a strong nation.”The author of this statement could best be described as a supporter of

A. nativism.

B. ethnocentrism.

C. cultural pluralism.

D. limited social mobility.

Answer: C

6.1.4 Population Changes – Use census data from 1790-1940 to describe changes in the composition, distribution, and density of the American population and analyze their causes, including immigration, the Great Migration, and urbanization.
1. The Farmer is the Man

When the farmer comes to town

With his wagon broken down,

Oh, the farmer is the man

Who feeds them all… .

The farmer is the man,

The farmer is the man,

Lives on credit till the fall;

Then they take him by the hand

And they lead him from the land,

And the middleman’s the man

Who gets it all… - American folk song

Which political party focused most of its efforts on the problem identified in this song?
A. Bull Moose

B. Free Soil

C. Populist

D. Progressive

Answer: C

2. What is the overall trend in the population of the United States from 1790-1940?

A. It increased at a slow rate.

B. It increased at a rapid rate.

C. It stayed the same.

D. It decreased at a slow rate.

Answer: B

3. In which year did urban population exceed rural population?

A. 1860

B. 1890

C. 1920

D. 1930
Answer: C

6.1.5 A Case Study of American Industrialism – Using the automobile industry as a case study, analyze the causes and consequences of this major industrial transformation by explaining

  • the impact of resource availability

  • entrepreneurial decision making by Henry Ford and others

  • domestic and international migrations

  • the development of an industrial work force

  • the impact on Michigan

  • the impact on American society

6.2.1 Political Revolutions – Analyze the Age of Revolutions by comparing and contrasting the political, economic, and social causes and consequences of at least three political and/or nationalistic revolutions (American, French, Haitian, Mexican or other Latin American, or Chinese Revolutions)
1. In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was established mainly because the United States wanted to
A. keep control of Alaska and Hawaii.

B. establish more colonies in Latin America.

C. support England’s attempt to keep its empire in Central America.

D. warn Europe against any further colonization in Latin America.

Answer: D

6.2.2 WWI – Explain the causes of World War I, the reasons for American neutrality and eventual entry into the war, and America’s role in shaping the course of the war.
1. The speakers below are discussing foreign policies that the United States has followed at various times. Base your answers on their statements and on your knowledge of social studies, especially America’s early role in World War I.
Speaker A: Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.

Speaker B: The United States will give economic aid to needy countries anywhere in the world, but will not provide military aid.

Speaker C: The United States must prevent the growth of communism.

Speaker D: The United States can take over other countries to help them become more like us.
Which speakers would most likely support a United States foreign policy of intervention?
A. A and B

B. A and C

C. C and D

D. B and D

Answer: C

6.2.3 Domestic Impact of WWI – Analyze the domestic impact of WWI on the growth of the government (e.g., War Industries Board), the expansion of the economy, the restrictions on civil liberties (e.g., Sedition Act, Red Scare, Palmer Raids), and the expansion of women’s suffrage.
1. Data from this graph support the conclusion that World War I

A. caused the United States trade deficit to increase.

B. cost the United States many billions of dollars.

C. was a significant benefit to the American economy.

D. created an unfavorable balance of trade.
Answer: C
2. In the United States, the Red Scare of 1919 and the McCarthy Era of the early 1950’s were periods of
A. severe economic depression.

B. widespread support for groups promoting international anarchy.

C. great growth in art, literature, and music.

D. persecution of people suspected of holding anti-American political views.

Answer: D

6.2.4 Wilson and His Opponents – Explain how Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” differed from proposals by others, including French and British leaders and domestic opponents, in the debate over the Versailles Treaty, United States participation in the League of Nations, the redrawing of European political boundaries, and the resulting geopolitical tensions that continued to affect Europe.
1. “We are to be an instrument in the hands of God to see that liberty is made secure for mankind.” -President Woodrow Wilson
President Wilson tried to carry out the idea expressed in the above quotation by
A. protesting the sinking of the Lusitania.

B. proposing a program of civil rights for minorities in American society.

C. urging the Allies to adopt the Fourteen Points.

D. taking control of territories conquered in World War I.

Answer: C

6.3.1 Social Issues – Describe at least three significant problems or issues created by America’s industrial and urban transformation between 1895 and 1930 (e.g., urban and rural poverty and blight, child labor, immigration, political corruption, public health, poor working conditions, and monopolies).
1. Which group would most likely have favored government action to address the issue shown in the cartoon?

A. Bankers

B. Unions

C. Industrialists

D. Railroad owners
Answer: B
2. At the turn of the century, why did most immigrants to the United States settle in cities?
A. Jobs were readily available.

B. Government relief programs required immigrants to settle in cities.

C. Labor union leaders encouraged unrestricted immigration.

D. Immigrants were not permitted to buy farmland.

Answer: A
3. In the period from 1890 to 1920, which development was the result of the other three?
A. Labor union agitation in response to unemployment.

B. Progressive Party plea for compulsory education.

C. Public outcry following numerous industrial accidents.

D. Passage of child labor laws by individual states.

Answer: D

6.3.2 Causes and Consequences of Progressive Reform – Analyze the causes, consequences, and limitations of Progressive reform in the following areas

  • major changes in the Constitution, including 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments

  • new regulatory legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Sherman and Clayton Anti-Trust Acts)

  • the Supreme Court’s role in supporting or slowing reform

  • role of reform organizations, movements and individuals in promoting change (e.g., Women’s Christian Temperance Union, settlement house movement, conservation movement, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, Eugene Debs, W.E.B. DuBois, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell)

  • efforts to expand and restrict the practices of democracy as reflected in post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and immigrants

1. Which long-awaited goal of the women’s rights movement was achieved during the Progressive Era?

A. Right to vote

B. Right to own property

C. Equal pay for equal work

D. Equal access to employment and education

Answer: A

2. The Sherman Antitrust Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in an effort to

A. promote the formation of new trusts.

B. maintain competition in business.

C. increase business investment.

D. limit the activities of foreign corporations.

Answer: B
3. In 1906 the publication of The Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair, led Congress to
A. enact stronger prohibition laws.

B. support the national conservation movement.

C. establish a system for meat inspection.

D. legalize strikes and boycotts by labor unions.

Answer: C

6.3.3 Women’s Suffrage – Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand women’s rights, including the work of important leaders (e.g., Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) and the eventual ratification of the 19th Amendment.
1. The abolitionist movement, the women’s suffrage movement, and the 1960’s civil rights movement are all examples of reform efforts that
A. succeeded without causing major controversy.

B. developed significant popular support.

C. achieved their goals without government action.

D. failed to affect the nation as a whole.

Answer: B

7.1.1 The Twenties – Identify and explain the significance of the cultural changes and tensions in the “Roaring Twenties” including

  • cultural movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance and the “lost generation”

  • the struggle between “traditional” and “modern” America (e.g., Scopes Trial, immigration restrictions, Prohibition, role of women, mass consumption)

1. The “Lost Generation” was a group of 1920s writers and other artists who

A. were killed during WWI.

B. were disconnected from the values of their own countries.

C. were traitors to their countries during WWI.

D. were a group of artists who never had any children.

Answer: B

2. During the 1920s, many women broke with tradition by

A. joining the workforce.

B. exercising their right to vote.

C. shortening their hemlines and hair.

D. all of the Above

Answer: D
3. Which of the following statements best describes the Harlem Renaissance?
A. A time when massive numbers of African Americans migrated to the North.

B. A time when many African Americans immigrated to Africa.

C. A time of literary awakening for African Americans.

D. A time of spiritual awakening for African Americans.

Answer: C
4. The 1920s have been nicknamed “the Roaring Twenties” because
A. it was a time of sweeping religious and technological change.

B. it was a time when people played their radios really loud.

C. it was a time of sweeping political and cultural change.

D. it was during this time that the U.S. entered a period of isolationism.

Answer: C

7.1.2 Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression – Explain and evaluate the multiple causes and consequences of the Great Depression by analyzing

  • the political, economic, environmental, and social causes of the Great Depression including fiscal policy, overproduction, under consumption, and speculation, the 1929 crash, and the Dust Bowl

  • the economic and social toll of the Great Depression, including unemployment and environmental conditions that affected farmers, industrial workers and families

  • Hoover’s policies and their impact (e.g., Reconstruction Finance Corporation)

1. In the 1920’s, the depressed situation of United States agriculture was chiefly caused by

A. overregulation by government.

B. mechanization and overproduction.

C. inefficient production techniques.

D. stock-market speculation.

Answer: B
2. Which combination of factors contributed most to the start of the Great Depression of the 1930’s?
A. Immigration restrictions and a lack of skilled workers.

B. High taxes and overspending on social welfare programs.

C. United States war debts and the declining value of the dollar.

D. Overproduction and the excessive use of credit.

Answer: D
3. What effect did the prosperity of the 1920s have on labor unions?
A. Labor unions saw membership decline.

B. Labor unions were able to organize a powerful lobby in Washington.

C. Labor unions grew in strength and numbers.

D. Labor unions were able to negotiate better pay for workers.

Answer: A

7.1.3 The New Deal – Explain and evaluate Roosevelt’s New Deal Policies including

  • expanding the federal government’s responsibilities to protect the environment (e.g., Dust Bowl and the Tennessee Valley), meet challenges of unemployment, address the needs of workers, farmers, poor, and elderly

  • opposition to the New Deal and the impact of the Supreme Court in striking down and then accepting New Deal laws

  • consequences of New Deal policies (e.g., promoting workers’ rights, development of Social Security program, and banking and financial regulation conservation practices, crop subsidies)

1. The “First Hundred Days” was characterized by

A. an economic recovery program which built dams and legislation passed by Congress to raise tariffs on foreign goods.

B. President Roosevelt’s calling for a special congressional session after his Inauguration to begin legislation on the New Deal.

C. military mobilization following the attack on Pearl Harbor.

D. the period of time that followed the 1929 stock market crash.

Answer: B
2. This New Deal program built roads and public housing.
A. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

B. Agricultural Adjustment Act

C. Public Works Administration

D. Social Security

Answer C
3. The main reason President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to increase the number of Justices on the United States Supreme Court was to
A. force the Court to hear cases involving the rights of minorities and women.

B. speed up the Court’s review of cases.

C. increase the independence of the Court.

D. make the Court more supportive of New Deal programs.

Answer: D
4. In the 1930’s, the enactment of New Deal programs demonstrated a belief that
A. corporations were best left to operate without government interference.

B. state governments should give up control over commerce inside their states.

C. the Federal Government must concern itself with the people’s economic well-being.

D. the United States Constitution was not relevant to 20th-century life.

Answer: C
5. A major result of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal was
A. a decline in the Federal deficit.

B. an expansion of the power of the Federal Government.

C. a change in the voting rights of women.

D. a reinstitution of the gold standard for United States currency.

Answer: B
6. The effectiveness of the New Deal in ending the Great Depression is difficult to measure because
A. President Franklin D. Roosevelt died during his fourth term.

B. United States involvement in World War II rapidly accelerated economic growth.

C. the Supreme Court declared most New Deal laws unconstitutional.

D. later Presidents failed to support most New Deal reforms.

Answer: B
7.2.1 Causes of WWII – Analyze the factors contributing to World War II in Europe and in the Pacific region, and America’s entry into war including

  • the political and economic disputes over territory (e.g., failure of Versailles Treaty, League of Nations, Munich Agreement)

  • the differences in the civic and political values of the United States and those of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan

  • United States neutrality

  • the bombing of Pearl Harbor

1. In the early 1940’s, the “destroyers-for-military-bases deal” with Great Britain and the Lend-Lease Act were evidence that the United States

A. recognized that its policy of neutrality conflicted with its self-interest.

B. followed its policy of neutrality more strictly as World War II progressed in Europe.

C. believed that the Allied policy of appeasement would succeed.

D. wanted to honor the military commitments it had made just after World War I.

Answer: A
2. Which action best illustrates the policy of isolationism followed by the United States before it entered World War II?
A. Signing of a collective security pact with Latin American nations.

B. Passage of neutrality legislation forbidding arms sales to warring nations.

C. Embargo on the sale of gasoline and steel to Japan.

D. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s exchange of American destroyers for British naval and air bases.

Answer: B
3. The United States became involved in World War II primarily because
A. Germany refused to pay its debts from World War I.

B. European democracies supported United States policies toward Germany and Japan.

C. President Franklin D. Roosevelt did not enforce the Neutrality Acts.

D. Germany and Japan achieved important military successes in Europe and Asia.

Answer: D
4. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 is an illustration of the
A. impact a single event can have on public opinion in a time of crisis.

B. effectiveness of a policy of appeasement in stopping aggression.

C. success of the pacifist movement in the United States.

D. role of communism as a negative influence in global affairs.

Answer: A

7.2.2 U.S. and the Course of WWII – Evaluate the role of the U.S. in fighting the war militarily, diplomatically and technologically across the world (e.g., Germany First strategy, Big Three Alliance and the development of atomic weapons).
1. Shortly after entering World War II, the United States began the Manhattan Project to
A. work on the development of an atomic bomb.

B. increase economic production to meet wartime demands.

C. defend New York City against a nuclear attack.

D. recruit men for the military services.

Answer: A
2. The Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway were significant in
A. saving the Philippines from being invaded.

B. thwarting the Japanese army’s drive through Burma.

C. stemming the tide of Japanese advances in the Pacific.

D. driving the last vestiges of American sea power from the Pacific.

Answer: C
3. Which of the following was agreed to at the Yalta Conference (1945)?

A. The establishment of a Council of Foreign Ministers to draft peace treaties.

B. A commitment to open a second front in France.

C. An agreement to divide Germany into four military zones.

D. The Soviet Union agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany was defeated.
Answer: C
4. Which of the following was the MAJOR reason President Truman used to justify his decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima in August 1945?
A. He felt it would shorten the war and eliminate the need for an invasion of Japan.

B. He wanted to send a strong warning message to the Russians to watch their step in the Pacific after Japan was defeated.

C. He believed it would be an appropriate revenge for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

D. He felt it would end up saving Japanese civilian lives, when compared to the casualties expected from an invasion of Japan.

Answer: A

7.2.3 Impact of WWII on American Life – Analyze the changes in American life brought about by U.S. participation in World War II including

  • mobilization of economic, military, and social resources

  • role of women and minorities in the war effort

  • role of the home front in supporting the war effort (e.g., rationing, work hours, taxes)

  • internment of Japanese-Americans

1. After World War II, the United States was better able than its allies to adjust its economy from wartime to peacetime because the United States

A. possessed nuclear weapons.

B. raised tariffs on imports.

C. had collected its war debts from the Allies.

D. had suffered no widespread wartime destruction.

Answer: D
2. World War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led to
A. the creation of new job opportunities.

B. the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.

C. a greater number of high-level management positions.

D. greater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation.

Answer: A
3. One of the most important domestic results of the war effort was
A. complete employment for minority Americans.

B. the end of discrimination for African Americans.

C. the revitalization of the Federal Reserve System and the Securities and Exchange System.

D. the swift ending of the Great Depression.

Answer: D

4. During World War II, this poster was used primarily to

A. contain the spread of communism.

B. create jobs for the unemployed.

C. gain financial support for the war.

D. convince women to fill vacant factory jobs.

Answer: C

5. Which does NOT describe the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II?

A. The Supreme Court upheld their evacuation from the West Coast.

B. Reparations were finally paid to evacuees about forty years after the end of the war.

C. Outside California, there was strong public opposition to the internment policy.

D. Many if the evacuees were United States citizens.

Answer: C

7.2.4 Responses to Genocide – Investigate development and enactment of Hitler’s “final solution” policy, and the responses to genocide by the Allies, the U.S. government, international organizations, and individuals (e.g., liberation of concentration camps, Nuremberg war crimes tribunals, establishment of state of Israel).
1. Attitudes in the United States toward Jews fleeing persecution in Europe during World War II were reflected in the
A. refusal to relax immigration restrictions for Jews.

B. emotional welcome given the passengers aboard the St. Louis.

C. monetary and legal assistance given to Jews for immigration.

D. acceptance of Jews in the United States.

Answer: A
2. Which precedent was established by the Nuremberg war crimes trials?
A. National leaders can be held responsible for crimes against humanity.

B. Only individuals who actually commit murder during a war can be guilty of a crime.

C. Defeated nations cannot be forced to pay reparations.

D. Defeated nations can be occupied by the victors.

Answer: A
3. The Final Solution was Hitler’s plan to
A. invade Poland.

B. recruit soldiers.

C. exterminate Jews.

D. end the war.

Answer: C

8.1.1 Origins and Beginnings of Cold War – Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War including

  • differences in the civic, ideological and political values, and the economic and governmental institutions of the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

  • diplomatic decisions made at the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (1945)

  • actions by both countries in the last years of and years following World War II (e.g., the use of the atomic bomb, the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, North American Treaty Alliance (NATO), and Warsaw Pact)

1. The U.S. and U.S.S.R. distrusted each other after WWII for all the following reasons except

A. the U.S had hesitated to open a second front during the war to help save the Soviet Union from a German invasion.

B. the U.S. had granted postwar loans to Great Britain but not to the USSR.

C. the U.S. and Great Britain had not shared nuclear research with the Soviet Union during the war.

D. the U.S. and Great Britain had wanted to assassinate Stalin during the war.

Answer: D
2. Shortly after World War II, the Cold War developed mainly as a result of the
A. United States’ refusal to send economic aid to European nations.

B. Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.

C. competition between the superpowers to explore outer space.

D. continuation of the pre-World War II balance of power.

Answer: B
3. Who occupied East Berlin after WWII?
A. United States

B. Great Britain

C. Soviet Union

D. France

Answer: C
4. A common purpose of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and the Eisenhower Doctrine was to
A. carry out the United States policy of preventing the spread of communism.

B. insure the survival of the newly independent nations of Africa and Asia.

C. limit the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

D. provide medical aid to Latin American nations.

Answer: A

5. During the Cold War the U.S.S.R. economy differed from the U.S. economy in all of the following ways except that

A. the consumers in the U.S.S.R. rarely had choices.

B. the government of the U.S. restricted the products that could be sold to consumers.

C. the government of the U.S.S.R. regulated production of consumer goods.

D. the consumers of the U.S participated in a free enterprise system.

Answer: B

8.1.2 Foreign Policy during the Cold War – Evaluate the origins, setbacks, and successes of the American policy of “containing” the Soviet Union, including

  • the development of a U.S. national security establishment, composed of the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the intelligence community

  • the armed struggle with Communism, including the Korean conflict

  • direct conflicts within specific world regions including Germany and Cuba

  • U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and the foreign and domestic consequences of the war (e.g., relationship/conflicts with U.S.S.R. and China, U.S. military policy and practices, responses of citizens and mass media)

  • indirect (or proxy) confrontations within specific world regions (e.g., Chile, Angola, Iran, Guatemala

  • the arms race

1. Both the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba (1961) and the invasion of Panama (1989) are examples of United States attempts to

A. eliminate unfriendly governments geographically close to the United States.

B. cultivate good relations with Latin American nations.

C. stop the drug trade.

D. end the Cold War.

Answer: A
2. The removal of General Douglas MacArthur from command of the United States-United Nations forces during the Korean War exemplifies the constitutional principle of
A. separation of powers.

B. federal supremacy.

C. freedom of speech.

D. civilian control of the military.

Answer: D
3. The essential element of the policy of containment was
A. a commitment to rolling back communism.

B. a rejection of involvement in affairs outside the Western Hemisphere.

C. a commitment to holding communism within the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

D. a commitment to working with the Soviet Union.

Answer: C
4. The Marshall Plan could be understood as a part of an American desire to
A. make communism less appealing to Europeans creating economic prosperity.

B. assemble a military alliance against the Soviet Union.

C. maintain Western Europe in a state of permanent economic dependence on the United States.

D. permanently eliminate the possibility of a threat from an industrialized Germany.

Answer: A

8.1.3 End of the Cold War – Evaluate the factors that led to the end of the cold war including détente, policies of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and their leaders (President Reagan and Premier Gorbachev), the political breakup of the Soviet Union, and the Warsaw Pact.
1. Which event led directly to the end of the Cold War?
A. Reunification of Germany.

B. Formation of the European Union.

C. Breakup of the Soviet Union.

D. Creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Answer: C
2. The Truman Doctrine and the Eisenhower Doctrine were United States foreign policies concerning
A. the international balance of payments.

B. the containment of communism.

C. world-wide environmental pollution.

D. nuclear disarmament.

Answer: B
3. “But this secret, swift, and extraordinary buildup of Communist missiles—in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the United States and the nations of the Western Hemisphere, in violation of Soviet assurances, and in defiance of American and hemispheric policy— this sudden, clandestine [secret] decision to station strategic weapons for the first time outside of Soviet soil—is a deliberately provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country, if our courage and our commitments are ever to be trusted again by either friend or foe. . . .”

- President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962

This statement is most closely associated with the
A. Bay of Pigs invasion.

B. Cuban missile crisis.

C. United States-Soviet space race.

D. nuclear test ban controversy.

Answer: B

5. From the end of World War II until the 1980’s, the United States carried out its foreign policy mainly by

A. giving in to foreign demands.

B. avoiding any situation that might involve the nation in a conflict.

C. acting forcefully to obtain and control colonies.

D. taking a variety of actions to prevent the spread of communism.

Answer: D

8.2.1 Demographic Changes- Use population data to produce and analyze maps that show the major changes in population distribution, spatial patterns and density, including the Baby boom, new immigration, suburbanization, reverse migration of African Americans to the South, and the flow of population to the “Sunbelt.”

8.2.2 Policy Concerning Domestic Issues – Analyze major domestic issues in the Post-World War II era and the policies designed to meet the challenges by

  • describing issues challenging Americans such as domestic anticommunism (McCarthyism), labor, poverty, health care, infrastructure, immigration, and the environment

  • evaluating policy decisions and legislative actions to meet these challenges (e.g., G.I. Bill of Rights (1944), Taft-Hartley Act (1947), Twenty-Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1951), Federal Highways Act (1956), National Defense Act (1957), E.P.A. (1970)

1. Which situation resulted from Senator Joseph McCarthy’s search for Communists within the United States during the 1950’s?

A. Thousands of American citizens who believed in communism were either jailed or deported.

B. The reputations of many people were ruined by false accusations of disloyalty.

C. Many high-ranking government officials were exposed as spies of the Soviet Union.

D. Organized groups of Communists began a wave of violent political terrorism.

Answer: B
2. “Those of us who shout the loudest about Americanism in making character assassinations are all too frequently those who, by our own words and acts, ignore some of the basic principles of Americanism.” -Senator Margaret Chase Smith, 1950
This criticism of Senator Joseph McCarthy and his supporters suggests that
A. Senator McCarthy did not do enough to protect the nation from a Communist conspiracy.

B. the tactics of Senator McCarthy were necessary to protect the basic principles of democracy.

C. free speech must be limited in times of national crisis.

D. Senator McCarthy was a greater threat to the nation than Communist sympathizers were.

Answer: D
3. How did the Taft-Hartley Act hurt organized labor?
A. By outlawing all-union shops.

B. By holding unions responsible for damages incurred during disputes between unions.

C. By making union leaders take loyalty oaths.

D. All of the above.

Answer: D

8.2.3 Comparing Domestic Policies – Focusing on causes, programs, and impacts, compare and contrast Roosevelt’s New Deal initiatives, Johnson’s Great Society programs, and Reagan’s market-based domestic policies.

8.2.4 Domestic Conflicts and Tensions – Using core democratic values, analyze and evaluate the competing perspectives and controversies among Americans generated by U.S. Supreme Court decisions (e.g., Roe v Wade, Gideon, Miranda, Tinker, Hazelwood), the Vietnam War (anti-war and counter-cultural movements), environmental movement, women’s rights movement, and the constitutional crisis generated by the Watergate scandal.
1. How did the Taft-Hartley Act hurt organized labor?
A. By outlawing all-union shops.

B. By holding unions responsible for damages incurred during disputes between unions.

C. By making union leaders take loyalty oaths.

D. All of the above.

Answer: D

8.3.1 Civil Rights Movement – Analyze the key events, ideals, documents, and organizations in the struggle for civil rights by African Americans including

  • the impact of WWII and the Cold War (e.g., racial and gender integration of the military)

  • Supreme Court decisions and governmental actions (e.g., Brown v. Board (1954), Civil Rights Act (1957), Little Rock schools desegregation, Civil Rights Act (1964), Voting Rights Act (1965))

  • protest movements, organizations, and civil actions (e.g., integration of baseball, Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–1956), March on Washington (1963), freedom rides, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Nation of Islam, Black Panthers)

  • resistance to Civil Rights

1. The main purpose of New Deal measures such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to

A. provide immediate employment opportunities.

B. develop rules to limit speculation and safeguard savings.

C. enable the Federal Government to take over failing industries.

D. assure a guaranteed income for American families.

Answer: B

2. Which action designed to oppose a political or business policy is closest to the approach used by Martin Luther King, Jr.?

A. A war protester accepting a jail term rather than registering for the draft.

B. A union picketer assaulting a strikebreaker.

C. A government employee resisting arrest for failure to pay income taxes.

D. Dissatisfied workers destroying machinery in their factory.

Answer: A

3. The abolitionist movement, the women’s suffrage movement, and the 1960’s civil rights movement are all examples of reform efforts that

A. succeeded without causing major controversy.

B. developed significant popular support.

C. achieved their goals without government action.

D. failed to affect the nation as a whole.

Answer: B

4. Originally, Governor Faubus used the Arkansas National Guard to

A. help African-American students with the freedom rides.

B. block African American students from entering segregated schools in Little Rock, AR.

C. help African-American students to enter segregated schools in Little Rock, AR.

D. block African-Americans from using the Montgomery Bus Line.

Answer: B

5. “I was disappointed not to see what is inside Central High School. I don’t understand why the governor [of Arkansas] sent grown-up soldiers to keep us out. I don’t know if I should go back. But Grandma is right, if I don’t go back, they will think they have won. They will think they can use soldiers to frighten us, and we’ll always have to obey them. They’ll always be in charge if I don’t go back to Central and make the integration happen. . . .”

- Melba Beals, Warriors Don’t Cry, an African American student, 1957


President Dwight D. Eisenhower reacted to the situation described in this passage by

A. forcing the governor of Arkansas to resign.

B. allowing the people of Arkansas to resolve the problem.

C. asking the Supreme Court to speed up racial integration.

D. sending federal troops to enforce integration.

Answer: D

6. Filibusters were used by United States Senators from the South in the 1950s and 1960s to

A. block passage of civil rights bills.

B. protest United States involvement in Vietnam.

C. override presidential vetoes of environmental bills.

D. gain approval of presidential appointments to the Supreme Court.

Answer: A

7. Which generalization can most accurately be drawn from a study of Supreme Court cases Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education?

A. The Supreme Court has issued consistent decisions in cases involving rights of the accused.

B. Supreme Court decisions are accepted without public controversy.

C. The Justices believe that social issues are best left for state courts to decide.

D. The Supreme Court has helped to determine public policy.

Answer: D
8. During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) illustrated that
A. all civil rights groups use the same tactics.

B. different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal.

C. organizational differences usually lead to failure.

D. violence is the best tool for achieving social change.

Answer: B

8.3.2 Ideals of the Civil Rights Movement – Compare and contrast the ideas in Martin Luther King’s March on Washington speech to the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Seneca Falls Resolution, and the Gettysburg Address.
1. “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.’”

- Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington, D.C., 1963


Which step was taken following this speech to advance the dream of Martin Luther King, Jr.?

A. Desegregation of the Armed Forces

B. Ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson

C. Elimination of the Ku Klux Klan

D. Passage of new civil rights acts

Answer: D

 2. The main goal of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) was to

A. obtain equal rights for women.

B. make the public aware of environmental problems.

C. correct the abuses of big business.

D. organize the first labor union in the United States.

Answer: A
3. To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress Assembled, We the undersigned, citizens of the United States, but deprived of some of the privileges and immunities of citizens among which, is the right to vote, beg leave to submit the following resolution: Resolved; that we the officers and members of the National Woman Suffrage Association, in convention assembled, respectfully ask Congress to enact appropriate legislation during its present session to protect women citizens in the several states of this Union, in their right to vote.

- Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1873)

This resolution illustrates the constitutional right to

A. petition for redress of grievances.

B. protection against unreasonable search and seizure.

C. a speedy and public trial.

D. freedom of religion.
Answer: A
4. “…In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the ‘unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.’ It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds.’”

- Martin Luther King, Jr., August 28, 1963


The focus of this passage from Dr. King’s speech was his belief that

A. equal rights for all were guaranteed by the founders of this nation.

B. Americans had become blind to racial differences.

C. violence was often necessary for the protection of civil liberties.

D. civil rights for African Americans would always be a dream.

Answer: A
5. The abolitionist movement, the women’s suffrage movement, and the 1960’s civil rights movement are all examples of reform efforts that

A. succeeded without causing major controversy.

B. developed significant popular support.

C. achieved their goals without government action.

D. failed to affect the nation as a whole.
Answer: B
6. “A house divided against itself cannot stand. . . . I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other…” -Abraham Lincoln, 1858
The “divided house” referred to in this speech was caused primarily by
A. expansionism.

B. war with Mexico.

C. slavery.

D. the suffrage movement.

Answer: C

8.3.3 Women’s Rights – Analyze the causes and course of the women’s rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (including role of population shifts, birth control, increasing number of women in the work force, National Organization for Women (NOW), and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)).

8.3.4 Civil Rights Expanded – Evaluate the major accomplishments and setbacks in civil rights and liberties for American minorities over the 20th century including American Indians, Latinos/Latinas, new immigrants, people with disabilities, and gays and lesbians.

8.3.5 Tensions and Reactions to Poverty and Civil Rights – Analyze the causes and consequences of the civil unrest that occurred in American cities by comparing the civil unrest in Detroit with at least one other American city (e.g., Los Angeles, Cleveland, Chicago, Atlanta, Newark).

9.1.1 Economic Changes – Using the changing nature of the American automobile industry as a case study, evaluate the changes in the American economy created by new markets, natural resources, technologies, corporate structures, international competition, new sources and methods of production, energy issues, and mass communication.
1. The automobile industry helped stimulate the US economy in the 1920s because it
A. increased demand for products such as steel, rubber, and gasoline.

B. started the Industrial Revolution in the United States.

C. ended US dependence on foreign-made cars.

D. increased employment opportunities for female engineers.

Answer: A
2. Which of the following technologies is used in making an automobile?
A. Division of labor

B. Automation

C. Robotics

D. All of the above

Answer: D
3. In the last 20 years, the use of automation in United States industry has led to
A. a shortage of consumer goods.

B. increased union membership.

C. the lowering of the legal minimum wage.

D. increased unemployment among unskilled workers.

Answer: D

9.1.2 Transformation of American Politics – Analyze the transformation of American politics in the late 20th and early 21st centuries including

  • growth of the conservative movement in national politics, including the role of Ronald Reagan

  • role of evangelical religion in national politics

  • intensification of partisanship

  • partisan conflict over the role of government in American life

  • role of regional differences in national politics

1. The “supply side” economics of President Ronald Reagan and President George Bush favored

A. raising tariffs to increase the number of imports.

B. increasing Federal taxes to support social welfare programs.

C. providing incentives to stimulate business growth.

D. establishing government programs to provide jobs for the unemployed.

Answer: C
2. In the United States, industrial unions of the 1880’s and of the 1980’s had similar goals in that both campaigned for
A. national health insurance.

B. better unemployment insurance.

C. greater job security and higher wages.

D. wage and price freezes.

Answer: C
3. A major goal of the Republican Party since the 1980s has been to
A. increase welfare benefits.

B. increase the size of the federal workforce.

C. reduce defense spending.

D. cut federal taxes.

Answer: D

9.2.1 U.S. in the Post-Cold War World – Explain the role of the United States as a super-power in the post-Cold War world, including advantages, disadvantages, and new challenges (e.g., military missions in Lebanon, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Gulf War).
1. One important conclusion that can be drawn as a result of the United States experience in both the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Persian Gulf War (1991) is that
A. only the President should decide issues of war and peace.

B. the media are a powerful influence in shaping American public opinion toward war.

C. the public has little confidence in the ability of the American military.

D. international organizations play a decisive role in determining the outcome of a war.

Answer: B
2. Since the Russian people rejected communism in the early 1990’s, the United States has provided support to the new nation by
A. creating a military alliance with Russia.

B. destroying most United States nuclear weapons.

C. opposing the independence of the other Russian republics.

D. giving foreign aid to Russia in the form of low-interest loans.

Answer: D
3. One similarity between the Korean War and the Persian Gulf War is that in each conflict the
A. United States attempted to limit traffic through the Suez Canal.

B. sentiment of the American public turned against the conflict.

C. United Nations took action to halt the aggression.

D. dictators of North Korea and Iraq were removed from office.

Answer: C

9.2.2 9/11 and Responses to Terrorism – Analyze how the attacks on 9/11 and the response to terrorism have altered American domestic and international policies (including e.g., the Office of Homeland Security, Patriot Act, wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, role of the United States in the United Nations, NATO).
1. How did the United States respond to 9/11 domestically?
Answer: Constructive Response Answer should include: tightened security in airports, restriction on items brought on board an airplane, development of the Office of Homeland Security, government agencies began to search for terrorist agents inside the U.S.
2. What two goals must the United States and its allies balance as they fight terrorism internationally?
Answer: Constructive Response Answer should include: providing security for our soldiers and the residents of the country while preserving or providing individual liberties.
3. Which issue is the central focus of this cartoon drawn after September 11, 2001?
A. Is there a need to give up some civil liberties to protect the nation?

B. Should the United States reduce oil imports from the Middle East?

C. Does the United States need fewer limits on immigration?

D. Should the United States abandon the Constitution?

Answer: A

9.3.1 Compose a persuasive essay on a public policy issue, and justify the position with a reasoned argument based upon historical antecedents and precedents, and core democratic values or constitutional principles.

  • Role of the United States in the world

  • National economic policy

  • Welfare policy

  • Energy policy

  • Health care

  • Education

  • Civil rights

United States History Assessments – May 2009

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