What was the chief goal of the Crusades?
To recover Jerusalem or the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
What problem was identified by Church reformers during the Middle Ages?
1. Village priests married and had families contrary to Church law
2. Bishops sold positions in the Church for money. (simony)
3. Kings, rather than Church leaders, appointed bishops.
What was the effect of the three-field system?
Farmers produced more food and villagers had more to eat.
What did the Magna Carta guarantee?
Basic legal rights
What was the major cause of the Great Schism?
Arguments about which man holding the position of pope was the true pope
What was the name of the legislative body of medieval England?
Which group was most responsible for the spread of the bubonic plague to Europe?
Merchants or traders
What was the central issue of the Hundred Years War?
The throne of France
What are characteristics of a Gothic cathedral architecture?
1. Sculpture, decorative
2. Pointed arches
3. Stained glass windows
4. High, vaulted ceilings
5. Open/ big – thin walls
6. Ribbed vaults
7. Flying buttresses
8. Built in the shape of a cross
What was one negative effect of the Crusades that has continued to the present?
Hostility between Muslims and Christians
In what kind of language did Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer write?
What issue led to both of the Magna Carta and the establishment of Parliament?
The power of the king
What did the devastation caused by the bubonic plague contribute to?
The disruption and collapse of medieval society
Describe the Crusades. (What were they? Who started them? Who fought against whom? What were they fighting for? )
a series of holy wars
started by Pope Urban II when he called for the defeat of the Muslims and returning the Holy Land to the Christians
the Christians fought against the Muslims
control of the Holy Land or Jerusalem.
How did the Great Schism and the Black Death lead to the end of the Middle Ages? (outcome of both) Provide two examples.
During the Middle Ages the two most import parts of society were the religion and the feudal system
1. The Great Schism and Black Death both lead to a break down in the manor/feudal system
As a result of the Great Schism people were putting more faith in one king and less in the lords
The Black Death caused the church to lose power and respect since it didn’t help the people
People left the manors thinking they could escape the plague which stopped the give and take relationship between people in the manor
2. The Great Schism and Black Death lead to a loss of respect and faith in the church which then puts an end to the Age of Faith.
During the Black Death the church gave no help to its members
From the Great Schism there came a lack of strength where the people couldn’t trust the church
Simony- Selling church positions
Inquisition – Church court used in Spain
Guild- Acts like a modern day union
Magna Car ta- Great charter “ bill of rights”
Gothic – A new style of architecture
Three-Field System- A new style of farming
Commercial Revolution- Progress in trade, business and banking.
Crusades- Series of holy wars
Bubonic Plague- Deadly disease
Great Schism- Great split in the Catholic church
Reconquista- Organized effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
Why did the Gothic style of church develop during this time period? ( how did it show what was important in society) Describe two differences between a Romanesque style church and a Gothic style church.
The Gothic style was a new style in architecture that developed during the Middle Ages.
This time period was known as the Age of Faith
Churches gained a lot of power and wealth and becomes the center of peoples’ lives
People decide to build “God’s House” in honor of Him
The Old Romanesque church was small/short with thick walls and very closed.
It had basic rounded arches and small windows
The new style of Gothic was tall and larger with thin walls and very open
They also had pointed arches and large stained glass windows
With the Church becoming more important we see a change from the Romanesque style to the Gothic Style. Here are some other features of the two styles of churches.
The traditional Romanesque church was all of these things:
Dark, dim and closed in
“boring” dull simple
barrel vaults – rounded
few small windows
closed in – more wall space
The traditional Gothic style church was all of these things:
light and open
fancy and decorative
rib vaults – arched or pointed
many large open windows
more open – less wall space